The United States shares many marine resources with both neighboring and distant countries. Migratory species (such as whales, sea turtles, pelagic fishes and many birds) rely on the marine and coastal waters of many countries during various life stages. Many marine species are distributed by ocean currents, connecting larvae and adults to habitats that cross international boundaries. Regional MPA networks can enhance the management of marine resources by protecting key habitats and species across their geographic range. Cultural resources also tell stories of ocean exploration, commerce and conflict across countries.
Many international programs aim to support the effective establishment and management of protected areas, including MPAs. Some key resources are listed below.
- IUCN Marine and Polar Program
- World Commission on Protected Areas - Marine
- UNESCO Marine World Heritage Program
- International Maritime Organization - Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas
- Big Ocean - Community of Practice for Very Large MPAs
Some regional collaborations that support MPA networks include:
- Commission for Environmental Cooperation - North American MPA Network (U.S., Canada and Mexico)
- Arctic Council - Pan Arctic MPA Network
- Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife Protocol (Wider Caribbean)
Sister MPAs and Parks
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